Review test

How much has the atmospheric CO2-concentration increased over the past 100 years?

What is the mechanism through which atmospheric CO2-enrichment can directly (i.e. not via climatic effects) influence alpine plants?

Experimental CO2 enrichment has shown no biomass response. Which other responses can be observed? (at least one example)

Which types of plants are likely to profit, which will suffer from enhanced wet nitrogen deposition in alpine regions?

Why do volatile organic pollutants accumulate to toxic levels in cold climates?

Give two examples of consequences of climatic warming for alpine vegetation.

What may constrain alpine plants' responses to warmer temperatures and earlier snowmelt?